〜なきゃ、〜なくちゃ、〜ちゃだめ、〜じゃだめ

 

V ない form 〜なければならない・なければなりません 〜なきゃ Must/ Have to do
〜なくてはいけない・なくてはいけません 〜なくちゃ
V て form 〜てはだめ 〜ちゃだめ Do not/ Should not
〜ではだめ 〜じゃだめ

I’ve come across these grammar points before, but I find them very confusing. And it’s not often that I come across texts using them. I usually remember well if I’ve simplified a point in a table format. It helps me remember things spatially, if that’s the right word for it.

 

 

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